Published Work


*indicates equal contribution

Allen, J. Arechar, A. A., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. Scaling up fact-checking using the wisdom of the crowds. Available at PsyArXiv
Feeney, J., Pennycook, G. & Van Boxtel, M. OpenMTurk: An Open-Source Administration Tool for Designing Robust MTurk Studies. Available at SSRN
McPhetres, J., & Pennycook, G. Science beliefs, political ideology, and cognitive sophistication. Available at PsyArXiv
McPhetres, J., & Pennycook, G. Lay people are unimpressed by graphs depicting effect sizes typically reported in psychological science. Available at PsyArXiv
Murray, S., Stanley, M., McPhetres, J., Pennycook, G. & Seli, P. “I’ve said it before and I will say it again”: Repeating statements made by Donald Trump increases perceived truthfulness for individuals across the political spectrum. Available at PsyArXiv
Pennycook, G., Binnendyk, J., Newton, C., & Rand, D. G. A practical guide to doing behavioural research on fake news and misinformation. Available at PsyArXiv
Pennycook, G.*, Epstein, Z.*, Mosleh, M.*, Arechar, A. A., Eckles, D., & Rand, D. G. Understanding and reducing the spread of misinformation online. Available at PsyArXiv
Pennycook, G., McPhetres, J. Bago, B., & Rand, D. G. Attitudes about COVID-19 in Canada, the U.K., and the U.S.A.: A novel test of political polarization and motivated reasoning. Available at PsyArXiv
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. The cognitive science of fake news. Available at PsyArXiv
Ross, R. M., Rand, D. G., & Pennycook, G. Beyond “fake news”: The role of analytic thinking in the detection of inaccuracy and partisan bias in news headlines. Available at PsyArXiv



Bago, B., Rand, D. G., & Pennycook, G. (2020). Fake news, fast and slow: Deliberation reduces belief in false (but not true) news headlines. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. pdf preprint
Bronstein, M., Pennycook, G., Buonomano, L., & Cannon, T. D. (2020). Belief in fake news, responsiveness to cognitive conflict, and analytic reasoning engagement. Thinking and Reasoning. link
Dias, N., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Emphasizing publishers does not effectively reduce susceptibility to misinformation on social media. The Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review. pdf
Epstein, Z., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020) Will the crowd game the algorithm? Using layperson judgments to combat misinformation on social media by downranking distrusted sources. CHI ’20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. link preprint
Martel, M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Reliance on emotion promotes belief in fake news. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5, 47. link preprint
McPhetres, J., Rand, D. G., & Pennycook, G. (in press). Character deprecation in fake news: Is it in supply or demand? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations preprint
Mosleh, M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Self-reported willingness to share political news articles in online surveys correlates with actual sharing on Twitter. PLOS One. pdf
Mosleh, M., Pennycook, G. Arechar, A. A., & Rand, D. G. (in press). Cognitive reflection correlates with behavior on Twitter. Nature Communications. preprint
Pennycook, G., Bear, A., Collins, E., & Rand, D. G. (2020). The implied truth effect: Attaching warnings to a subset of fake news headlines increases perceived accuracy of headlines without warnings. Management Science. pdf preprint
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2020). On the belief that beliefs should change according to evidence: Implications for conspiratorial, moral, paranormal, political, religious, and science beliefs. Judgment and Decision Making, 15, 476-498. pdf
Pennycook, G., McPhetres, J. Zhang, Y., Lu, J. G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy nudge intervention. Psychological Science. link preprint
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Who falls for fake news? The roles of bullshit receptivity, overclaiming, familiarity, and analytic thinking. Journal of Personality, 88, 185-200. link preprint
Scherer, L. D., McPhetres, J., Pennycook, G., Kempe, A., Allen, L. A., Knoepke, C. E., Tate, C. E., & Matlock, D. D. (in press). Who is Susceptible to Online Health Misinformation? A Test of Psychosocial Hypotheses. Health Psychology. preprint
Scherer, L. D. & Pennycook, G. (2020). Who is Susceptible to Online Health Misinformation? American Journal of Public Health.
Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Thinking clearly about causal inferences of politically motivated reasoning: Why paradigmatic study designs often undermine causal inference. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 34, 81-87. link preprint
Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2020). Bayesian or biased? Analytic thinking and political belief updating. Cognition. link preprint
Tappin, B. M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (in press) Rethinking the link between cognitive sophistication and politically motivated reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. preprint
Van Bavel, J. J., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., Crockett, M. J., Crum, A. J., Douglas, K. M., Druckman, J. N. Drury, J., Dube, O., Ellemers, N., Finkel, E. J., Fowler, J. H., Gelfand, M., Han, S., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Kitayama, S., Mobbs, D., Napper, L. E., Packer, D. J., Pennycook, G., Peters, E., Petty, R. E., Rand, D. G., Reicher, S. D., Schnall, S., Shariff, A., Skitka, L. J., Smith, S. S., Sunstein, C. R., Tabri, N., Tucker, J. A., van der Linden, S., Van Lange, P. A. M., Weeden, K. A., Wohl, M. J. A., Zaki, J., Zion, S. & Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behavior, 4, 460-471. pdf preprint


Bronstein, M. V., Pennycook, G. Bear, A., Rand, D. G., & Cannon, T. D. (2019). Belief in Fake News is Associated with Delusionality, Dogmatism, Religious Fundamentalism, and Reduced Analytic Thinking. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8, 108-117. link preprint
Bronstein, M. V., Pennycook, G., Joorman, J., Corlett, P. R., & Cannon, T. D. (2019). Dual-process theory, conflict processing, and delusional belief. Clinical Psychology Review, 72, 101748. pdf link
De keersmaecker, J., Dunning, D., Pennycook, G., Rand, D. G., Sanchez, C., Unkelbach, C., & Roets, A. (2019). Investigating the robustness of the illusory truth effect across individual differences in cognitive ability, need for cognitive closure, and cognitive style. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. link preprint
De Neys, W., & Pennycook, G. (2019). Logic, fast and slow: Advances in dual-process theorizing. Current Directions in Psychological Science. pdf link
Fazio, L., Rand, D.G., & Pennycook, G. (2019). Repetition increases perceived truth equally for plausible and implausible statements. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 1705–1710. link preprint
Koehler, D. K., & Pennycook, G. (2019). How the public, and scientists, perceive advancement of knowledge from conflicting study results. Judgment & Decision Making 14, 671-682. link (pdf)
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2019). Fighting misinformation on social media using crowdsourced judgments of news source quality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 2521-2526. link (OA) preprint
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2019). Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning. Cognition, 188, 39-50. link preprint
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2019). Cognitive Reflection and the 2016 US Presidential Election. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45, 224-239. link preprint
Ross*, R. M., Brown-Iannuzzi*, J. L., Gervais, W. M., Jong, J., Lanman, J. A., McKay, R., & Pennycook, G. (2019). Measuring supernatural belief using the affect misattribution procedure. Religion, Brain and Behavior. link
Stagnaro*, M. N., Ross*, R. M., Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2019). Cross-cultural support for a link between analytic thinking and disbelief in God: Evidence from India and the United Kingdom. Judgment and Decision Making, 14, 179-186. link (pdf)


Lazer*, D., Baum*, M., Benkler, J., Berinsky, A., Greenhill, K., Menczer, F., Metzger, M., Nyhan, B., Pennycook, G., Rothschild, D., Sloman, S., Sunstein, C., Thorson, E., Watts, D., & Zittrain, J. (2018). The science of fake news. Science, 9, 1094-1096. link
Pennycook, G., Cannon, T. D., & Rand, D. G. (2018). Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147, 1865-1880. pdf preprint
Pennycook, G. & Thompson, V. A. (2018). An analysis of the Canadian cognitive psychology job market (2006-2016). Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 71-80. pdf preprint
Stagnaro, M. N., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. (2018) Performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test is stable across time. Judgment and Decision Making, 13, 260–267. link (pdf)
Thompson, V. A., Pennycook, G., Trippas, D. & Evans, J. St. B. T. (2018). Do smart people have better intuitions?  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147, 945-961. pdf
Trippas*, D., Kellen*, D., Singmann*, H., Pennycook, G., Koehler, D. J., Fugelsang, J. A., & Dubé, C. (2018). Characterizing belief bias in syllogistic reasoning: A hierarchical-bayesian meta-analysis of ROC data. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 2141–2174. link preprint


Bialek*, M. & Pennycook*, G. (2017). The cognitive reflection test is robust to multiple exposures. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 1953–1959. link
Pennycook, G., Ross, R.M., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2017). Dunning-Kruger effects in reasoning: Theoretical implications of the failure to recognize incompetence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1774-1784. link


Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016). Is the cognitive reflection test a measure of both reflection and intuition? Behavior Research Methods, 48, 341–348. link
Pennycook, G., Ross, R.M., Koehler, D.J., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016). Atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers: Four empirical studies and a meta-analysis. PLOS One, 11, e0153039. link (OA)
Ross, R. M., Pennycook, G., McKay, R., Gervais, W. M., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2016). Analytic thinking style, not delusional ideation, predicts data gathering in a large beads task study. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 4, 300-314. link
Sterling, J. L., Jost, J. T., & Pennycook, G. (2016). Are neoliberals more susceptible to bullshit? Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 352–360. link (pdf)


Barr*, N., Pennycook*, G., Stolz, J.A., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015). The brain in your pocket: Evidence that Smartphones are used to supplant thinking. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 473-480. link
Barr, N., Pennycook, G., Stolz, J.A., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015). Reasoned connections: A dual-process perspective on creative thought. Thinking & Reasoning, 21, 61-75. [Special Issue on Creativity and Insight Problem Solving] link
Browne, M., Thomson, P., Rockloff, M., & Pennycook, G. (2015). Going against the herd: Understanding the psychosocial factors underlying the ‘vaccination confidence gap’. PLOS One, 10, e1032562. link
Meyer, A., Frederick, S., Burnham, T., Guevara Pinto, J. D., Boyer, T. W., Ball, L. J., Pennycook, G., Ackerman, R., & Thompson, V.A. (2015). Disfluent fonts don’t help people solve math problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, e16-e30. link
Medimorec*, S. & Pennycook*, G. (2015). The language of denial: Text analysis reveals differences in language use between climate change proponents and skeptics. Climatic Change, 1-9. [See also: Nature’s “Research Highlights” (Nature, 525, 292.) and the National Centre for Science Education] link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015) On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bullshit. Judgment and Decision Making, 10, 549-563. link (pdf)
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., & Koehler, D.J. (2015). What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement. Cognitive Psychology, 80, 34-72. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., & Koehler, D.J. (2015). Everyday consequences of analytic thinking. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 425-43. [See also APS’ Observer] link preprint
Trippas, D., Pennycook, G., Verde, M.F., & Handley, S.J. (2015). Better but still biased: Analytic cognitive style and belief bias. Thinking & Reasoning, 21, 431-445. link


Browne, M., Pennycook, G., Goodwin, B., & McHenry, M. (2014). Reflective minds and open hearts: Cognitive style and personality predict religiosity and spiritual thinking in a community sample. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 736-742. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2014). Cognitive style and religiosity: The role of conflict detection. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1-10. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2014). The role of analytic thinking in moral judgments and values. Thinking & Reasoning,20, 188-214. [Special Issue on Dual-Process Theories] link
Pennycook*, G., Trippas*, D., Handley, S. J., & Thompson, V.A. (2014). Base-rates: Both neglected and intuitive. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40, 544-554. link


Cheyne, J.A. & Pennycook, G. (2013). Sleep paralysis post-episode distress: Modeling potential effects of episode characteristics, general psychological distress, beliefs, and cognitive style. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 135-148. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2013). Belief bias during reasoning among religious believers and skeptics. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 806-811. link
Thompson, V.A., Prowse Turner, J., Pennycook, G., Ball, L., Brack, H., Ophir, Y. & Ackerman, R. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking. Cognition, 128, 237-251. link


Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Seli, P., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2012). Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief. Cognition, 213, 335-346. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A. & Koehler, D.J. (2012). Are we good at detecting conflict during reasoning? Cognition, 124, 101-106. link
Pennycook, G. & Thompson, V.A. (2012). Reasoning with base-rates is routine, relatively effortless and context-dependent. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 528-534. link


Thompson, V.A., Prowse Turner, J. & Pennycook, G. (2011). Intuition, reason and metacognition. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 107-140. link


Pennycook, G. (2020). Belief Bias and Its Significance for Modern Social Science. Psychological Inquiry. [Commentary on Clark & Winegard, 2020] link osf
Pennycook, G., De Neys, W., Evans, J. St. B. T., Stanovich, K. E., & Thompson, V. A. (2018). The mythical dual-process typology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. [Commentary on Melnikoff & Bargh, 2018] link
Pennycook, G. (2018). You are not your data. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [Commentary on Zwaan, Etz, Lucas, & Donnelan, 2018] link
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2017). The evolution of analytic thinking? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [Commentary on Burkart, Schubiger, & van Schaik, 2017] link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016) It’s still bullshit: Reply to Dalton. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 123-125. link (pdf)
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., Koehler, D.J., & Thompson, V.A. (2016) Commentary on: Rethinking fast and slow based on a critique of reaction-time reverse inference. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1174. link (OA)
Pennycook, G. & Ross, R.M. (2016). Commentary on: Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 9. link (OA)
Pennycook, G. (2015). Domain generality in religious cognition. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 5, 247-250. [Commentary on Johnson, Li, & Cohen, 2015] link
Pennycook, G. (2014). Evidence that analytic cognitive style influences religious belief: Comment on Razmyar and Reeve (2014). Intelligence, 43, 21-26. link
Thompson, V.A., Ackerman, R., Sidi, Y., Ball, L., Pennycook, G., & Prowse Turner, J. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency in the monitoring and control of reasoning: Reply to Alter, Oppenheimer, & Epley (2013). Cognition, 128, 256-258. link


Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Ecker, U., Albarracin, D., Amazeen, M. A., Kendeou, P., Lombardi, D., Newman, E. J., Pennycook, G., Porter, E., Rand, D. G., Rapp, D. N, Reifler, J., Roozenbeek, J., Schmid, P., Seifert, C. M., Sinatra, G. M., Swire-Thompson, B., van der Linden, S., Vraga, E. K., Wood, T. J., Zaragoza, M. S. (2020). The Debunking Handbook 2020. link
Pennycook, G. (2018). Why reason matters: An introduction. In G. Pennycook (Ed.). The New Reflectionism in Cognitive Psychology: Why Reason Matters. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Barr, N. & Pennycook, G. (2018). Why reason matters: Connecting research on human reason to the challenges of the anthropocene. In G. Pennycook (Ed.). The New Reflectionism in Cognitive Psychology: Why Reason Matters. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Pennycook, G. (2017). A perspective on the theoretical foundation of dual-process models. In W. De Neys (Ed.). Dual-Process 2.0. New York, NY: Psychology Press. PDF
Pennycook, G., Tranel, D., Warner, K., & Asp, E. W. (2017). Beyond reasonable doubt: Cognitive and neuropsychological implications for religious disbelief. In A. Coles (Ed.). Neurology of Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF
Pennycook, G. & Thompson, V.A. (2016). Base-rate neglect. In R. Pohl (Ed.). Cognitive Illusions: Intriguing Phenomena in Thinking, Judgment, and Memory (2nd ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press. PDF
book cover