Published Work


Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. Cognitive Reflection and the 2016 US Presidential Election. Available at SSRN:
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. Crowdsourcing Judgments of News Source Quality. Available at SSRN:
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. The Implied Truth Effect: Attaching Warnings to a Subset of Fake News Stories Increases Perceived Accuracy of Stories Without Warnings. Available at SSRN:
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. Who Falls for Fake News? The Roles of Analytic Thinking, Motivated Reasoning, Political Ideology, and Bullshit Receptivity. Available at SSRN:
Pennycook, G., Cannon, T. D., & Rand, D. G. Implausibility and Illusory Truth: Prior Exposure Increases Perceived Accuracy of Fake News but Has No Effect on Entirely Implausible Statements. Available at SSRN:  [See also: Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action]
Stagnaro, M. N., Pennycook, G., & Rand, D. G. Cognitive Reflection is a Stable Trait. Available at SSRN:
Trippas, D., Kellen, D., Singmann, H., Pennycook, G., Koehler, D. J., Fugelsang, J. A., & Dubé, C. Characterizing Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning:A Hierarchical-Bayesian Meta-Analysis of ROC Data. Available at PsyArXiv:


*indicates equal contribution


Bialek*, M. & Pennycook*, G. (2017). The cognitive reflection test is robust to multiple exposures. Behavior Research Methods. link
Pennycook, G., Ross, R.M., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2017). Dunning-Kruger effects in reasoning: Theoretical implications of the failure to recognize incompetence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. link


Pennycook, G., Ross, R.M., Koehler, D.J., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016). Atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers: Four empirical studies and a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 11, e0153039. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016). Is the cognitive reflection test a measure of both reflection and intuition? Behavior Research Methods, 48, 341–348. link
Ross, R. M., Pennycook, G., McKay, R., Gervais, W. M., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2016). Analytic thinking style, not delusional ideation, predicts data gathering in a large beads task study. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. link
Sterling, J. L., Jost, J. T., & Pennycook, G. (2016). Are neoliberals more susceptible to bullshit? Judgment and Decision Making. link


Barr*, N., Pennycook*, G., Stolz, J.A., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015). The brain in your pocket: Evidence that Smartphones are used to supplant thinking. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 473-480. link
Barr, N., Pennycook, G., Stolz, J.A., & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015). Reasoned connections: A dual-process perspective on creative thought. Thinking & Reasoning, 21, 61-75. [Special Issue on Creativity and Insight Problem Solving] link
Browne, M., Thomson, P., Rockloff, M., & Pennycook, G. (2015). Going against the herd: Understanding the psychosocial factors underlying the ‘vaccination confidence gap’. PLoS ONE, 10, e1032562. link
Meyer, A., Frederick, S., Burnham, T., Guevara Pinto, J. D., Boyer, T. W., Ball, L. J., Pennycook, G., Ackerman, R., & Thompson, V.A. (2015). Disfluent fonts don’t help people solve math problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, e16-e30. link
Medimorec*, S. & Pennycook*, G. (2015). The language of denial: Text analysis reveals differences in language use between climate change proponents and skeptics. Climatic Change, 1-9. [Covered in Nature’s “Research Highlights” (Nature, 525, 292.) and by the National Centre for Science Education] link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2015) On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bullshit. Judgment and Decision Making, 10, 549-563. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., & Koehler, D.J. (2015). What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement. Cognitive Psychology, 80, 34-72. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., & Koehler, D.J. (2015). Everyday consequences of analytic thinking. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 425-43. [Covered in APS’ Observer] link
Trippas, D., Pennycook, G., Verde, M.F., & Handley, S.J. (2015). Better but still biased: Analytic cognitive style and belief bias. Thinking & Reasoning, 21, 431-445. link


Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2014). The role of analytic thinking in moral judgments and values. Thinking & Reasoning,20, 188-214. [Special Issue on Dual-Process Theories] link
Browne, M., Pennycook, G., Goodwin, B., & McHenry, M. (2014). Reflective minds and open hearts: Cognitive style and personality predict religiosity and spiritual thinking in a community sample. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 736-742. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2014). Cognitive style and religiosity: The role of conflict detection. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1-10. link
Pennycook*, G., Trippas*, D., Handley, S. J., & Thompson, V.A. (2014). Base-rates: Both neglected and intuitive. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40, 544-554. link


Cheyne, J.A. & Pennycook, G. (2013). Sleep paralysis post-episode distress: Modeling potential effects of episode characteristics, general psychological distress, beliefs, and cognitive style. Clinical Psychological Science, 1, 135-148. link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2013). Belief bias during reasoning among religious believers and skeptics. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 806-811. link
Thompson, V.A., Prowse Turner, J., Pennycook, G., Ball, L., Brack, H., Ophir, Y. & Ackerman, R. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking. Cognition, 128, 237-251. link


Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Seli, P., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2012). Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief. Cognition, 213, 335-346. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A. & Koehler, D.J. (2012). Are we good at detecting conflict during reasoning? Cognition, 124, 101-106. link
Pennycook, G. & Thompson, V.A. (2012). Reasoning with base-rates is routine, relatively effortless and context-dependent. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 528-534. link


Thompson, V.A., Prowse Turner, J. & Pennycook, G. (2011). Intuition, reason and metacognition. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 107-140. link


Pennycook, G. (in press). You are not your data. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [Commentary on Zwaan, Etz, Lucas, & Donnelan, in press] link
Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. (2017). The evolution of analytic thinking? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [Commentary on Burkart, Schubiger, & van Schaik, 2017] link
Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J.A., Barr, N., Koehler, D.J. & Fugelsang, J.A. (2016) It’s still bullshit: Reply to Dalton. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 123-125. link
Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., Koehler, D.J., & Thompson, V.A. (2016) Commentary on: Rethinking fast and slow based on a critique of reaction-time reverse inference. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1174. link
Pennycook, G. & Ross, R.M. (2016). Commentary on: Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 9. link
Pennycook, G. (2015). Domain generality in religious cognition. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 5, 247-250. [Commentary on Johnson, Li, & Cohen, 2015] link
Pennycook, G. (2014). Evidence that analytic cognitive style influences religious belief: Comment on Razmyar and Reeve (2014). Intelligence, 43, 21-26. link
Thompson, V.A., Ackerman, R., Sidi, Y., Ball, L., Pennycook, G., & Prowse Turner, J. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency in the monitoring and control of reasoning: Reply to Alter, Oppenheimer, & Epley (2013). Cognition, 128, 256-258. link


Pennycook, G. (in press). A perspective on the theoretical foundation of dual-process models. In W. De Neys (Ed.). Dual-Process 2.0. New York, NY: Psychology Press. PDF
Pennycook, G., Tranel, D., Warner, K., & Asp, E. W. (in press). Beyond reasonable doubt: Cognitive and neuropsychological implications for religious disbelief. In A. Coles (Ed.). Neurology of Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF
Pennycook, G. & Thompson, V.A. (2016). Base-rate neglect. In R. Pohl (Ed.). Cognitive Illusions: Intriguing Phenomena in Thinking, Judgment, and Memory (2nd ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press. PDF


Cheyne, J.A. & Pennycook, G. (2016). The seductions of pretentious bullshit: An empirical study. Skeptic Magazine, 21, 40-45. PDF
Pennycook, G. (2016). Why bullshit is no laughing matter. Aeon Digital Magazine. Link